Microbiology Research Journal International http://www.journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Microbiology Research Journal International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7043)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, and short communications in all areas of Microbiology such as virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology, clinical microbiology, phycology, parasitology, protozoology, microbial physiology, immunology, microbial genetics, medical microbiology, microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology disease pathology and immunology, probiotics and prebiotics</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Microbiology Research Journal International 2456-7043 Baseline Assessment of Risk Factors of Presumptive Tuberculosis among under Five Children Living with an Index Client under Treatment in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda http://www.journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30214 <p><strong>Background and Aims: </strong>Children in contact with adults having pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) are vulnerable to TB infection and hence contact tracing and screening is important for early detection of infection. However, there are few contacts traced and the prevalence and risk factors for transmission are not well studied. <a name="_Toc8975129"></a>The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection and risk factors associated with TB transmission among under five children in household contact with adult pulmonary TB patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials and </strong><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study was carried out in three health facilities with a high TB burden in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda involving all under five household contacts of adults with pulmonary tuberculosis recorded in the TB register from October 2018 to March 2019 and still on treatment. Structured questionnaires were administered to the index clients to obtain their demographic and clinical data about TB, HIV as well as information on the children. Children were screened using the intensive case finding forms to identify presumptive cases.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The total number of index TB Clients line listed were 70. Number of clients traced was 38, 21 (%) of whom had children under five years and a total of 33 children were identified. The number of presumptive cases was 9/33 (27.27%). 77.8% of the presumptive cases were living in poorly ventilated houses.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study identified children with presumptive TB and various risk factors for TB transmission. Intensive contact tracing can therefore help reduce TB transmission within the communities. It is recommended to undertake studies aiming at improving contact tracing and strategies to eliminate the risk factors to TB transmission.</p> Rosemary Tumusiime Charles Mukasa Agatha K Kisakya-Maria Irene Mildred Neumbe Jerome Odyeny Bernard Maube Yahaya Gavamukulya Rebecca Nekaka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 1 8 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i530214 Effects of Chronic Use of Herbicides on Soil Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics http://www.journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30215 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Herbicide application is a vital strategy of weed control. The effects of these chemicals on the non-target soil microorganisms are very intense; have adverse impact on physicochemical parameters of the soil, which in turn affect soil fertility and plant growth.</p> <p><strong>Research Gap:</strong> There are insufficient literatures on extensive monitoring of the effects of prolonged herbicides use. Existing literatures concerning analysis of effect of prolonged herbicides application on soil are not comprehensive with respect to number of soil characteristics analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong><strong>:</strong> This study assessed the effects of Atrazine and Glyphosate on physicochemical properties and microbial population of carrot and maize farm soils, exposed to prolonged use at Songhai Delta.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted in Songhai Delta farms and the Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, from April to July, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> These pesticides were applied according to the manufacturers’ instructions at sublethal concentrations. Their effects on soil pH, cation exchange capacity, total organic carbon, nitrates, phosphates, sulphates and microbial populations at two depths (0-15 and 15-30 cm) were assessed using standard methods. Microbial counts were carried out for total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi using the pour plate method.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> There were variations in the different properties of the carrot and maize farm soils. Soil pH was higher in maize farm (5.91±0.10) than in carrot farm (5.88±0.06) at the depth of 15-30 cm. The pH, total organic carbon, nitrate content had no significant difference while phosphate and microbial counts were significantly different at <em>P=.05</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> This assessment has shown that the herbicides had no influence on pH, total organic carbon, nitrate but a negative one on bacterial and fungal populations with prolonged use. A modification in physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of soil could be used to predict the fertility and health status of soils.</p> L. E. Tudararo-Aherobo T. L. Ataikiru ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-05 2020-06-05 9 19 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i530215