Open Access Original Research Article

Dermatophytes and Other Keratinophiic Fungi in Soils of Anguilla, British West Indies (BWI)

Harish C. Giugnani, Kirtika Venketesan

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730233

Aims: Keratinophilic fungi include dermatophytes and a variety of other fungi. Information on their occurrence in several Caribbean countries is scarce. This study investigates occurrence of dermatophytes and other keratinophiic fungi in soils of Anguilla, British West Indies (BWI) and emphasizes its public health significance.

Study design: Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in the Department of Microbiology, Saint James School of Medicine, Anguilla (BWI). One hundred and ten samples of soils from habitats in several localities in Anguilla were examined.

Methodology: The samples were processed by Vanbreuseghem’s hair-bait technique. Bits of fungal growth on hair-bates were cultured on Mycobiotic agar to get pure cultures. Identification of the isolates was accomplished by a detailed study of colonial characters and microscopical features of the isolates.

Results: Eighty-five isolates of keratinophilic fungi were recovered. The identified species included two geophilic dermatophytes, Micrsporum fulvum and M. gypseum and two species of Chrysosporium, namely Chrysosporium keratinophilum and C. indicum, M. fulvum was the predominant species being recovered from 35 (31.8%) of the soil samples followed by C. keratinophilum being isolated from 15.5% of the samples. M. gypseum was present in 8 (7.3%) of the samples. The prevalence of other species was as follows: C. indicum (13.6%), Chrysosporium spp. (4.5%) and Sepedonium spp. (4.5%).

Conclusion: The preponderance occurrence of M. fulvum over M. gypseum and that of C. keratinophilum over C. indicum in soils of Anguilla is a remarkable observation. The farmers, other workers, school children who come in contact with soil are likely to be infected with a dermatophytes and also the visitors to the beaches and the local population nearby.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Bouaké, Côte D´Ivoire

A. Diarrassouba, S. F. Toure, Y. L. C. Karidioula, A. M. Konan, A. Traoré, P. Monemo, E. A. Anoh, S. Karidioula, J. O. N. Tadet, S. D. Adon, R. Asse, C. Akoua- Koffi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 7-16
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730234

Aim: Determine the prevalence of serological markers and identify risk factors associated with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection in patients screened at the Bouake teaching hospital.

Study Design: Retrospective cross sectional study was conducted

Study Site and Period: Bacteriology-Virology Laboratory/Bouake teaching hospital, Côte d´Ivoire, from April 2016 to January 2018.

Methodology: In all 1076 study participants, venous blood sample was collected and screened for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc), by electrochemical-luminescence following the manufacturer protocols.  Additionally, questionnaires were used to collect information regarding sociodemographic variables and possible risk factors for hepatitis B infection.  Data were processed and analyzed using EPI INFO 7 software.

Results: A total of 1076 participants were included in this study with a median age of 30.0 years (range: 3 months; 82 years). Of which, 514 (48%) were female and 562 (52%) were male with female / male ratio 1.09. HBsAg was detected in 24,3% of participants and 82 1 (76,3%) were exposed to the risk of HBV infection (anti-HBc positive). High rate of HBV infection was detected in male (27.93%) (p=0.003). The age group of 15–45 years were more infected (27.18%) (p<0.0001). The detection rate of HBe antigen (HBeAg), anti-HBe and anti-HBc (total antibodies) were respectively 12%; 86% and 7%. Of 938 participants who were not vaccinated against HBV, 240 (25.58%) were HBsAg-positive. HBV vaccine uptake was protective against HBV infection (AOR =0.580; 95% CI 0.359-0.938; p=0.024).

Conclusion: The rate of carriage of HBs antigen was higer than national rate, which confirms that Bouake is a highly endemic area for HBV infection. Vaccination against Hepatitis B virus is the only way to prevent and to fight effectively against this infection. It is therefore important to encourage the screening and vaccination in the general population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotyping of Canine Distemper Virus Lineage in Clinically Infected Dogs in Puducherry, Southern India

Megavarnan Abirami, Mouttou Vivek Srinivas, Jayalakshmi Vasu, Prabhakar Xavier Antony, Jacob Thanislass, Muthuraj Muthaiah, Hirak Kumar Mukhopadhyay

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 17-30
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730235

Aims: This study aimed to determine the Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) lineage circulating in the Puducherry region (Southern India) and how they are genetically and antigenically related to the vaccine and other known CDV lineages around the world.

Study Design: The study involved genetic characterization of the canine distemper virus strains/lineages circulating in the clinically suspected dogs in the field.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Veterinary Clinical Complex, Animal Husbandry Department, Private Veterinary Clinics, NGOs like Bark India, People for Animals organization, Puducherry between January 2018 and December 2019.

Methodology: The ocular and nasal swabs were collected from 40 dogs suspected for canine distemper from Puducherry state (Southern India). Following viral RNA Extraction and cDNA synthesis; the cDNAs were screened for virus by targeting the CDV Nucleocapsid (N) gene using Reverse Transcriptase PCR. Further, the N gene positive cDNAs were genetically characterized for sequence analysis of the CDV hemagglutinin (H) gene.

Results: A total of 15 (37.5%) out of 40 ocular/ nasal swabs were found to be CDV positive by RT-PCR targeting the N gene. The sequence analysis of the H gene revealed forty-nine non-synonymous and thirty-three synonymous mutations (out of 356 amino acids) in comparison with vaccine strain. The vaccine virus (Onderstepoort strain), which is related to the America 1 lineage, possessed high level of (30 – 35 i.e. more than 10%) amino acid divergence with the CDV sequences analysed in this study. The Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the present CDV sequences formed a separate monophyletic group with the CDV sequences of other Indian dogs and the Indian wildlife (Lion) and is clustered away from the vaccine strain. The CDV sequences were closer to the CDVs of Africa - 2 lineage than the other Asian lineages.  The Recombination analysis revealed no potential breakpoints and recombination events.

Conclusion: Together, these findings highlighted the possible existence of the novel Indian CDV lineage/s distinct from the vaccine strain and from other known Asian lineages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Bacterial Contamination of Inert Hospital Surfaces and Equipment in Critical and Non-critical Care Units: A Brazilian Study

Dayane Otero Rodrigues, Laís da Paixao Peixoto, Erica Tatiane Mourao Barros, Julianne Rodrigues Guimaraes, Bruna Clemente Gontijo, Jaisa Leite Almeida, Lucas Guimaraes de Azevedo, Julia Cristina Oliveira e Lima, Deyse Silva Camara

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 31-43
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730237

Aims: The hospital environment is an important reservoir of microorganisms, including multidrug-resistant pathogens, which can cause in-patient contamination and healthcare-related infections.  The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of bacterial contamination (contaminated sites, pathogen species and their antimicrobial susceptibility, and identifying of multidrug-resistant microorganisms - MDR) of inert hospital surfaces and medical equipment in two public hospitals in Northern Brazil.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 243 samples (n = 208, from Hospital A; and n = 35, from Hospital B) collected by friction with humidified swabs from inert surfaces and equipment. Sequentially the samples were cultivated and bacterial species were identified by culture-based methods and tested for their susceptibility through agar diffusion assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).

Results: Most inert surfaces and equipment analyzed presented bacterial contamination (95.5%). Staphylococcus aureus was the main pathogen of clinical significance detected both in Hospital A (61.8%) and B (68.6%). Hospital A showed higher rates of isolated MDR bacteria than Hospital B, especially in the Adult Intensive Care Unit, which included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (52.7%), Enterobacteria resistant to 4th generation cephalosporins (19.4%), and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.8%).

Conclusion: The failures in the control of bacterial contamination of inert surfaces and equipment in the two hospitals analyzed reinforce the need for a revised protocol for cleaning and disinfection of the inert surfaces and equipment, and for regulation of antibiotic dispensing, mainly in the AICU of Hospital A, which was found to be a reservoir of MDR pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lactobacillus rhamnosus V5 Prevents Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Invasion in Cell Culture and Mice Infection

C. T. Tsuruda, P. C. De Souza, E. K. Nishio, R. S. Almeida, L. A. Panagio, A. A. S. Baptista, S. Garcia, D. O. Pinheiro, E. J. A. Araújo, M. Chue-Gonçalves, R. K. T. Kobayashi, G. Nakazato

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 44-57
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730238

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective capacity of the exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus rhamnosus V5 against invasion in vitro and in vivo with S. typhimurium.

Methodology: We tested the antimicrobial activity of the compound extracted from the            lactobacilli against S. typhimurium directly, also we tested the interference of this compound in S. typhimurium adherence and invasion of HeLa and HEp-2 cells (in vitro testings). For in vivo experiments, we used 16 BALB/c female mice. Through gavage method we introduced L. rhamnosus as probiotic and then infected mice with S. enterica serovar typhimurium. After euthanasia, spleen, liver and Peyer's patches removed for microbiological and histopathological analysis.

Results: The results showed that lactobacilli were able to produce antimicrobial compounds  against S. typhimurium. These lactobacilli inhibited the adhesion and invasion of S. typhimurium  in HeLa and HEp-2 cells, respectively. The challenge assay in the murine model demonstrated a decrease in pathogen translocation in the spleen and liver from mice treated with probiotic as  well as protection of ileal tissue in lactobacilli-treated mice. The histopathological analysis demonstrated the presence of prominent lymphoid nodules in the ileum from the non-treated lactobacilli mice.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that L. rhamnosus improved the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier and, thus, could be a potential probiotic to control salmonellosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Contamination of Chicken Eggs from Poultry Farms and Retail Markets in the New Juaben Municipality, Ghana

Matthew Glover Addo, Manomba-Asamoah Raissa, Kingsley Badu, Samuel Agordzo

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730239

This cross-sectional study seeks to investigate the bacterial contamination of poultry products (eggs) produced from selected farms and sold within the major markets in the New Juaben Municipality in the Eastern region of Ghana. A total of 100 eggs were sampled randomly from October to December, 2018 from five poultry farms and five retail markets in the municipality for microbial evaluation. The collected swabs of eggshells and its contents collected at various times of the day were cultured on suitable media and standard microbiological test were performed to identify the isolated organisms. The entire eggshell samples were positive for bacteria with only 13 (13%) having growth in the egg content. The genera of bacteria recorded are Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus and Citrobacter. The mean total viable count of bacteria from both shell and content sampled from poultry farms and retail markets were 13.2×107cfu/ml and 8.0 ×107cfu/ml (p>0.05) respectively. These were higher than the acceptable value of 10×105 gm/cfu. The study also showed that the level of microbial contamination of the eggs was highest in the afternoon as compared to the morning and evening. The bacteria isolates and the sheer numbers from both the eggshells and the egg content confirm the poor hygienic conditions under which both the poultry farms and markets were kept. Even though serious human pathogens were not prevalent in this study, it is recommended that strict hygienic protocols be adhered to on the poultry farms and in the markets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fungal Infections in Plateau State, Nigeria

L. U. Enurah, S. J. Shaibu, A. A. Bitrus, A. H. Momoh- Zekeri, L. H. Lombin, I. J. Barde

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 67-79
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730240

This paper describes a study carried out on people of different ages with various skin diseases who submitted themselves for examination and diagnoses at the Dermatophylosis Research Centre of the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. Samples of skin scrapping were collected and cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) while some were examined under the microscope for possible morphological identification of the fungi. The results showed that out of the thirty samples analyzed, nine genera of fungi were isolated comprising of Trichophyton 10 (33.3%), Aspergillus 9 (30%), Penicillum 4 (13.32%), Microsporum 2 (6.70%), Epidermorphyton 1 (3.33%), Trichosporum   1 (3.33%), Cryptococcus 1 (3.33%), Mucor 1 (3.33%), and Cephalosporium  1 (3.33).

The study revealed high incidence of human fungal diseases, a situation that calls for good hygiene practices in the study area to mitigate and possibly eradicate the prevalence of human skin diseases in the rural area of Plateau State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Burden of Helicobacter pylori Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Cases of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Egypt

Hadir M. El- Kady, Waiel Al- Kahiry, Hadeel Said Tawfik Abdelsalam

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 80-91
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730241

Introduction: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a worldwide nutritional problem; it accounts for about half of the world’s anaemia burden. Globally, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is becoming an increasingly troublesome economic and public health problem. The colonization of the organism in gastric mucosa may impair iron uptake and increase iron loss, potentially leading to iron deficiency anaemia. The mechanisms by which H. pylori is postulated to cause IDA are H. pylori -associated chronic gastritis resulting in hypo/or achlorhydria, reduced ascorbic acid secretion and reduced intestinal iron absorption, occult blood loss due to chronic erosive gastritis, and sequestration and utilization of iron by Helicobacter pylori.

Aims: To detect H. pylori–related IDA prevalence among asymptomatic cases of anaemia and to address the possibility that such infection may play a detrimental role in their blood picture, serum iron and ferritin levels and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)

Study Design & Methods: Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in the period from December 2018 to May 2019. Screening was done for asymptomatic attendants of a   number of private laboratories in Beheira, Alexandria and Gharbiya governorates. Three hundreds of whom were proved to be cases of IDA and were further tested for H. pylori antigen in stool.

Results: Helicobacter pylori Ag test in stool was positive in 180 out of 300 cases of iron deficiency anaemia. The infection significantly affected the haemoglobin level, MCV, MCH and RDW in studied cases (p<0.05). Infection with H. pylori also significantly affected the serum iron, serum ferritin and TIBC in the studied cases of IDA (p<0.05).

Conclusion: A significant association between H. pylori infection and IDA. Screening for H. pylori among unexplained cases of IDA is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution of InvA Gene PCR to Recovery of Salmonella spp. Strains

Bakayoko Souleymane, Goualie Gblossi Bernadette, Kofi Kobina Adams Amandze, Coulibaly Kalpy Julien, Yao Kouame Rene, N’Gazoa Solange, Kette Faye Hortense, Dosso Mireille

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 92-98
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730242

Aims: Salmonella infection remains a major public health concern worldwide, contributing the economic burden of both industrialized and developing countries through the costs associated with surveillance, prevention, and treatment of disease. This zoonosis has a harmful health and economic impact in terms of death, hospitalization, and destruction of livestock on farms. To adapts the means of control and prevention against this threat, the phenotypical characterization of Salmonella strains, both those recently identified and those which have been conserved for a long time, is necessary. So, the aim of this study was to check quality of the salmonella strains first stored in storage tubes in NRC of salmonella of Institute Pasteur of Côte d'Ivoire.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was done in Institute Pasteur of Côte d’Ivoire between July 2019 and October 2019.

Methodology: A total of 56 tubes used to store salmonella strains with few or no agar were analyzed to assess presence of Salmonella. The strains were first cultured in broth and then on selective agar (Hecktoen) medium and nutrient agar. Then, the Salmonella-specific InvA gene was directly detected in the tubes.

Results: The results obtained showed that the quality of the Salmonella strains initially conserved for at least 10 years had clearly deteriorated because none of them had been cultured after enrichment and culture on agar media. However, 73.21% of tubes not containing storage agar have traces of Salmonella DNA followed by molecular identification.

The preponderant contaminating bacterial flora was represented by Gram positive.

Conclusion: These results should encourage all laboratories to proceed immediately with the quality control of their strain collections for excellent biobanking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening, Isolation and Identification of High Antioxidant Strains from 16 Kinds of Mushrooms

Li Pei-Xia, Jan Tian-Tian, Li Wei-Yi, He Dong-Hao, Huang Yi

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 99-109
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730243

Aims: To promote the rational exploration of the mushroom resources, this study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant activity of 16 kinds of mushrooms collected from the Sichuan province in China and completed the identification of the optimal active strains.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan province, China. April 2019 to May 2020 (13 Months).

Methodology: 16 kinds of mushrooms were collected in the wild. These strains were isolated and cultivated. The extract’s antioxidant activities of fermentation broth and mycelium were assessed using the DPPH radical-scavenging method. The higher activity strains were also evaluated by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and the Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Meanwhile, the contents of total flavonoids and total phenols were determined. Finally, The highly active strains were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) Identification.

Results: All extract of fermentation broth and mycelium from 16 kinds of mushrooms had scavenging effects on DPPH. Among them, strain No. 6 and No. 7 exhibited obvious antioxidant capacity, and the scavenging rates of their fermentation broths on DPPH were 89.47% and 84.27%, respectively. And the results of TEAC and FRAP were consistent with those of DPPH. Besides, these two kinds of mushrooms were all rich in phenolic and flavonoid compounds, and the content in the fermentation broth was significantly higher than that in the mycelium, indicating that phenolic and flavonoid substances may be the material basis of their antioxidant effect. The strain No. 6 and No. 7 were confirmed to be Bjerkandera and Nigrospora sp, respectively by 16S nrDNA sequence identification.

Conclusion: The results showed that Bjerkandera and Nigrospora sp. possessed the highest antioxidant capacities with rich total phenolic and total flavonoids. They could be potential sources of natural antioxidants for further exploration and application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasmosis among Four Subgroups in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Onosakponome Evelyn Orevaoghene, Michael Ndubuisi Wogu

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 110-118
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730244

Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the comparative seroprevalence and associated risk factors of toxoplasmosis among four subgroups in Port Harcourt viz: immunocompromised persons (HIV), pregnant women (PTW) and schizophrenics (SZN), using immunocompetent persons (IP) as controls.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study was adopted.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) and Neuro Psychiatric Hospital (NPH) between March 2016 and February 2017.

Methodology: A total of 800 (200 from each of the group) samples were collected from subjects from the three hospitals. Study participants of ≥20 years were used in this study. The detection of T. gondii antibodies in examined sera was carried out using ELISA –IgG and IgM assay using standard procedures. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on social demographic risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis.

Results: Out of the 800 (200 per group) examined, SZN recorded the highest seroprevalence of IgG 50%(100)(P.= .05) and IgM 4%(8) followed closely by HIV subjects with seroprevalence of IgG 32%(72) (P=.05) and IgM 2%(3). However, the seroprevalence were not significantly different from that of the immunocompetent control group which had the least seroprevalence. Schizophrenia subjects in age group 20-24 years recorded the highest seroprevalence with (P=.05) The unemployed recorded the highest seroprevalence for SZN with rates of 43% for IgG. More males were infected with the disease than females. Male Schizophrenics recorded a seroprevalence of 20.9%. There was no significant relationship between seroprevalence and demographic factors among subjects.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that toxoplasmosis was relatively prevalent (P=.05) among the studied population, with schizophrenics having the highest seroprevalence. Therefore, incorporating detection of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in routine testing in our health care centers is recommended for monitoring and control of the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activities of Soaps Formulated from Carapa procera Oil

Gbamelé Kouakou Kan Serges, Yayé Yapi Guillaume, Boyvin Lydie, Bonouman Ira Ama Valerie, Anigbé Amon Maurice, Chatigre Kouamé Olivier, Djaman Allico Joseph

Microbiology Research Journal International, Page 119-125
DOI: 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730245

Aims: The Carapa procera species is used of traditional for its antimicrobial properties especially for the skin. Its oil is used for various applications including the production of soaps used for personal hygiene and other skin conditions. The purpose of this study is to assess the antibacterial properties of soaps formulated from the oil of this species.

Place and Duration of Study: The units of organic biological chemistry and structural organic chemistry of the UFR Structural Sciences of Matter and Technology (Université Félix Houphouet-Boigny) for the manufacture of soaps and the bacteriology unit of the Institut Pasteur de Côte d'Ivoire for bioassays between January 2019 and February 2020.

Methodology: The antibacterial evaluation was carried out by the disc method on nutrient agars with determination of bacterial parameters (MIC and MBC). Discs of usuals antibiotics (Tetracycline, Rifampicin and Ampicillin) were used as a control to assess this activity as well as a commercially soap.

Results:  The inhibition diameters obtained from these different test soaps vary from 16.00 - 17.15 mm; 15.75 - 17.70 mm and 20.33 - 24.00 mm respectively on growth of the bacterial strains E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Unlike unscented soaps, scented soaps have the best inhibition diameter zones values. Moreover, the best MBC values (25 mg/mL) are obtained with the 2 soaps in fresh or aged state on the S. aureus strain against 50 mg/mL on the 2 other strains. In addition, with the exception of the E. coli strain which is resistant to Tetracycline, the 2 other strains are sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. In addition, this study also shows variability in the effect of soaps on these targets.

Conclusion: Soaps formulated from Carapa procera oil do indeed possess antibacterial properties that could justify its usage against dermatoses in traditional medicine.